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Je li hranjenje ptica samo nakon snježne oluje korisno ili štetno?

Je li hranjenje ptica samo nakon snježne oluje korisno ili štetno?



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Ovdje smo imali vrlo rijetku snježnu oluju koja je ostavila tlo prekriveno snijegom od 8 inča i drveće prekriveno snijegom i ledom. Vjerojatno će se sve otopiti u nadolazećim danima jer imamo sunčane dane i temperature iznad nule.

Primijetio sam neke ptice kako čačkaju po snijegu na mojoj stražnjoj palubi, pa sam izrezao sirove nepržene orahe i bademe na male komadiće i razasuo ih po palubi i vidio brojne male ptice koje su svratile da se nahrane.

Često putujem od kuće i ne mogu pouzdano držati hranilicu za ptice opskrbljenom, pa me zanima je li ovaj privremeni izvor hrane koristan ili štetan za ptice jer ga neću održavati nakon što se snijeg otopi.

Moja zabrinutost zbog štete je da ih navedem da promijene svoje ponašanje i da ih osposobim da nastave tražiti hranu na mojoj palubi nakon što ih prestanem hraniti za nekoliko dana. Pretpostavljam da sirovi orašasti plodovi kojima ih hranim neće štetiti čak ni ako nije dobro uravnotežena prehrana, ali nemam baš ništa prikladnije.

Ne znam koja je to vrsta ptica, visoke su oko 3 inča, tipične ptice sjeverozapadne Pacifika, pretpostavljam.


Kratkotrajno hranjenje treba biti korisno, a ne štetno za ptice, osobito ako je tijekom ili nakon hladne oluje. (Ptice koje se hrane zemljom, kao što su Junco ili Towhee prikazane na vašoj slici, imaju posebne poteškoće nakon što oluja prekrije tlo snijegom.) Ljudi koji se brinu o hranjenju je da će hranjenje stvoriti ovisnost ptica o umjetno dostavljenoj hrani. Najgori slučaj za to bi se očekivao tijekom jesenske migracije, gdje bi neobična zaliha hrane mogla odgoditi ptice u selidbi, što može biti štetno ako ne mogu preživjeti hladnije vrijeme na koje se mogu susresti zbog kašnjenja. Osim tog razdoblja, kratkotrajno hranjenje ne bi trebalo biti problematično jer ptice neće razviti jaku naviku posjećivanja tijekom kratkog razdoblja.

Ovisnost o ljudskom hranjenju proučavali su Brittingham i Temple u članku "Does Winter Bird Feeding Promote Dependency?". Ovo istraživanje procijenilo je piliće u dva područja, jedno koje je imalo dodatnu hranu na raspolaganju godinu dana. Sljedeća godina, bez hrane na raspolaganju za oba područja, nije pokazala nikakvu razliku između ptica nastanjenih u dva područja. Iako nisu testirali iznenadno prestanak uzimanja hrane usred zime, komentiraju taj scenarij:

Nismo testirali što se događa kada se hranilice neočekivano uklone s mjesta usred zime, ali sumnjamo da to ne bi bilo tako štetno kao što se obično misli. Zimi, prirodni dio hrane može iznenada nestati kao posljedica zimske snježne ili ledene oluje ili aktivnosti traženja hrane drugih članova jata. Kao rezultat toga, pilići očito prate brojne mrlje s hranom u svakom trenutku i kontinuirano uzorkuju brojna područja bez obzira koliko hrane ima u izobilju u bilo kojem dijelu. Ova strategija je neophodna za preživljavanje u nepredvidivom i promjenjivom okruženju. Ljudi smatraju hranilice za ptice vrlo predvidljivim izvorom hrane, ali u smislu evolucijskog vremena, bile su dostupne tek vrlo kratko vrijeme. Za ptice se vjerojatno ne razlikuju od bilo koje druge hrane.


Pomaže im ako imaju odgovarajuću hranu:

citat:

studije su pokazale da ptice koje prebrode zimu u boljoj fizičkoj kondiciji vide da se te prednosti prenose u sezonu gniježđenja. Hranjenje ptica dovodi do znatno ranijeg datuma nesenja jaja, većih kladica jaja, veće težine pilića i većeg ukupnog uspjeha u razmnožavanju kod širokog raspona vrsta ptica2,6.

https://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/


Kako uočiti problem s gljivicom: ptice i životinje kopaju po vašem travnjaku

Vlasnici kuća često se bore s tvorovima, rakunima, oklopnicima, crvendaćima, krticama ili raznim pticama koje pustoše travnjak kopajući ga punim rupa, nikad ne shvaćajući pravi uzrok. Ove životinje ne kopaju iz zabave, već zato što traže nešto pod zemljom: ličinke.

Mnogi kornjaši s tvrdom ljuskom pronađeni u stambenom krajoliku mogu zaraziti tlo svojim ličinkama, koje su zajednički poznate kao ličinke. Japanske bube i lipanjske bube neke su od uobičajenih kornjaša koje zaraze travnjake i vrtove ružnim bijelim ili žutim ličinkama koje jedu korijenje vrtnih biljaka i travnjaka. U većini slučajeva to je ono što male životinje i ptice traže na vašem travnjaku. Kontrolirajte ličinke i kontrolirajte životinje koje kopaju vaš travnjak.


Ptice predviđaju promjenu vremena i prilagođavaju ponašanje očitajući barometarski tlak

(Phys.org) —Nova studija Western University Advanced Facility for Avian Research (AFAR) dokazuje kroz eksperimente da ptice mogu predvidjeti promjene vremena očitajući porast i pad barometarskog tlaka.

U AFAR-u se nalazi prvi na svijetu hipobarični klimatski aerotunel za let ptica, koji omogućuje istraživanje fiziologije i aerodinamike leta ptica u uvjetima velike nadmorske visine. Opremljen eksperimentalnim i analitičkim objektima koji mijenjaju igru, AFAR je vodeći centar za proučavanje neurobiologije, fiziologije i ponašanja ptica.

Ovi najnoviji rezultati istraživanja na temelju AFAR-a, koje su proveli Scott MacDougall-Shackleton, Christopher Guglielmo, Jessica Metcalfe i njihove kolege, objavljeni su u časopisu, Ponašanje životinja.

"Sada smo jasno pokazali da ptice, i kada zimuju i migriraju, imaju svoj vlastiti unutarnji barometar, koji im pomaže da donose odluke o svemu, od leta do hranjenja", kaže vd ravnatelja AFAR-a MacDougall-Shackleton, koji je također zajednički imenovan na Western's Faculty znanosti i Fakulteta društvenih znanosti i viši autor rada pod naslovom Vrapci bijelog grla prilagođavaju ponašanje kao odgovor na manipulacije zračnim tlakom i temperaturom.

"Ovo se pretpostavilo dugo vremena i postoji veliki broj dokaza da se životinje u divljini ponašaju drugačije kada se vrijeme promijeni, ali sada imamo eksperimentalnu demonstraciju u kojoj smo sve ostalo držali konstantnim osim barometrijskog tlaka koji definitivno dokazuje da je ovo dugotrajno vjerovanje."

Ovaj AFAR projekt, koji je vodila Metcalfe dok je bila studentica preddiplomskog studija na Westernu, simulirao je zimske oluje i proljetne migracije manipulirajući temperaturom i rasvjetom u hipobaričnom klimatskom aerotunelu.

"Za uvjete zimovanja, krenuli bismo vrlo rano ujutro, prije nego što se upali svjetla, i simulirali oluju", objašnjava Guglielmo. "Uobičajeno, kada se ptica probudi, očisti svoje perje i malo skakuće prije nego što se napuni gorivom za dan. U ovoj studiji smo spustili pritisak, neposredno prije simulirane zore, a čim su se svjetla upalila, ptice odmah su počele jesti. Slično, kada smo u proljeće simulirali visoki tlak i hladno vrijeme povezano s vjetrovima sa sjevera, ptice su smanjile svoje noćno selidbeno ponašanje."


Stočarstvo: Uloga stočarstva u upravljanju dobrobiti ljudi

Stočarstvo je grana poljoprivrede koja se bavi njegom i upravljanjem stokom. Stočarstvo se bavi ishranom, uzgojem, smještajem i zdravstvenom njegom stoke za postizanje maksimalne koristi.

Stoka se odnosi na domaće životinje (domaće životinje) kao što su krave, ovce, itd. koje ljudi drže u korisne komercijalne svrhe. Kada koristimo riječ "životinja" u stočarstvu, mislimo samo na one pripitomljene životinje koje se uzgajaju uglavnom u gospodarske ili rekreacijske svrhe, kao što su goveda, bivoli, ovce, koze, deve, svinje, konji itd. To također uključuje peradarstvo i ribarstvo.

Ribarstvo uključuje uzgoj, ulov, prodaju itd. ribe, mekušaca (školjke) i rakova (slatkovodne kozice - Palemon, Rakovi, itd.). Ljudi od davnina koriste životinje poput pčela i svilene bube. Ljudi su stoku koristili za proizvode kao što su mlijeko, jaja, meso, vuna, svila, med itd.

Više od 70 posto svjetske stočne populacije živi u Indiji i Kini. No, zanimljivo je napomenuti da je doprinos svjetskim poljoprivrednim proizvodima samo 25 posto. Stoga se uz stare prakse uzgoja i njege životinja moraju koristiti nove tehnike za poboljšanje kvalitete i produktivnosti.

Riječ 'mužništvo' znači upravljanje domaćim poslovima. Izraz koji se koristi u vezi sa stočarstvom uključuje pravilnu ishranu, uzgoj, zdravstvenu skrb, smještaj itd.

Uloga stočarstva u dobrobiti ljudi:

Stoka sisavaca može se koristiti kao izvor mlijeka i mliječnih proizvoda kao što su jogurt, sir, maslac, sladoled itd.

To je proizvodnja korisnog oblika prehrambenih proteina i energije.

Ispaša stoke ponekad se koristi kao način suzbijanja korova i šiblja. Na primjer, u područjima sklonim divljim požarima, koze i ovce se postavljaju na ispašu na suhom grmlju što smanjuje opasnost od požara.

Stočarstvo proizvodi niz vlakana/tekstila. Na primjer, ovce i koze proizvode vunu, a jeleni i ovce mogu proizvoditi kožu.

Za mehaničku energiju mogu se koristiti životinje poput konja, magaraca i jakova. Prije parne energije, stoka je bila jedini dostupni izvor neljudskog rada. Još uvijek se koriste u tu svrhu na mnogim mjestima svijeta, uključujući oranice, prijevoz robe i vojne funkcije.

Stajnjak se može rasipati po poljima kako bi se povećali prinosi usjeva. To je važan razlog zašto su povijesno pripitomljavanje biljaka i životinja bile tijesno povezane. Stajnjak se također koristi za izradu žbuke za zidove i podove i može se koristiti kao gorivo za požare. Krv i kosti životinja također se koriste kao gnojivo.

Upravljanje farmskim i farmskim životinjama:

Menadžment je umjetnost i znanost kombiniranja ideja, objekata, procesa, materijala i rada kako bi se uspješno proizveo i plasirao vrijedan proizvod ili usluga. Neki od postupaka upravljanja u različitim sustavima farmi životinja opisani su u nastavku.

(1) Uprava mliječne farme:

Mlijekarstvo je gospodarenje životinjama za mlijeko i njegove proizvode za prehranu ljudi. Krave, bivoli, koze i ovce životinje su koje bismo očekivali u mljekari. Krave i bivoli općenito daju više mlijeka od koza i ovaca. Žuta boja kravljeg mlijeka je zbog karotena.

Bivolje mlijeko ne sadrži karoten. Ghee od krava hranjenih obilnom zelenom krmnom smjesom je žutlji nego kad se hrane suhom hranom. U upravljanju mljekarstvom ljudi se bave procesima i sustavima koji povećavaju prinos i poboljšavaju kvalitetu mlijeka. Oni su opisani u nastavku.

1. Četiri osnovne metode za poboljšanje stoke:

To su uzgoj, plijevljenje, hranjenje i čuvanje, (i) I muške i ženske životinje odabrane za uzgoj trebaju biti vrhunske kvalitete, (ii) Plovljenje ima za cilj da se neekonomične životinje moraju spriječiti u razmnožavanju, (iii) Hranjenje je također vrlo važno za životinje. Svaku životinju treba hraniti uravnoteženim obrokom, (iv) Pažnja (obratiti pažnju) podrazumijeva dobro upravljanje životinjama i opći nadzor uključujući njegu smještaja i održavanje odgovarajuće čistoće i higijene.

Prema WHO-u 'zdravlje' je stanje potpune tjelesne, mentalne i socijalne dobrobiti, a ne samo odsutnost bolesti. Zdrava životinja redovito jede piće i dobro spava. Stoga je važno dobro zdravlje.

3. Prikladni uvjeti okoline:

Treba osigurati odgovarajuću ventilaciju, odgovarajuću temperaturu, dovoljno svjetla, vode, zraka i dobro dreniran smještaj.

4. Otpornost na bolesti:

Ako se životinja dobro brine, razvija se otpornost na bolesti i životinja je zaštićena od bolesti.

5. Redoviti pregledi:

Navedene mjere bi naravno zahtijevale redovite inspekcije, uz propisno vođenje evidencije. Bile bi potrebne redovite posjete veterinaru.

Stoga su produktivni potencijali stoke kontrolirani trima glavnim čimbenicima (i) genetskom strukturom (ii) ishranom i (iii) okolišem uključujući klimatske uvjete. “Otac bijele revolucije u Indiji” je Verghese Kurein.

(2) Upravljanje farmom peradi:

Riječ 'perad' koristi se za ptice koje se mogu uzgajati pod pripitomljavanjem u gospodarske svrhe. Pojam se odnosi na kokoši, purane, patke, guske, labudove, biserke, golubove, paunove i prepelice. Kod nas se uglavnom misli na kokoši, udomaćene za jaja i meso. Patke su također pripitomljene, ali u znatno manjoj mjeri.

Upravljanje farmom peradi uključuje sljedeće komponente.

1. Odabir prikladnih pasmina bez bolesti:

Odabir pasmina je najvažniji aspekt. Pasmina bi trebala biti bez bolesti i primjerena uvjetima okoline. Najčešća sorta tipa jaja koja se koristi za komercijalnu proizvodnju u cijelom svijetu je Single Comb White Leghorn i njegove različite vrste. Zalihe mesa uglavnom potječu od pasmina ptica Plymouth Rock, Cornish i New Hampshire.

Kućica za ronjenje treba biti bez gužve, otporna na kišu i zaštićena od grabežljivaca. Trebao bi imati prozore s žičanom mrežom za prikladnu ventilaciju.

3. Sanitarije i higijena:

Kuću treba očistiti i dezinficirati. Dobar sustav odvodnje neophodan je za održavanje čistoće peradišta.

4. Njega pilića tijekom gniježđenja:

Po dolasku pilića daje se slatka voda (gur 50 g/l). Krmnu smjesu u obliku kukuruzne dalije treba dati u prvih 24-28 sati, a kasnije u hranilice treba dodati potpunu hranu za piliće. Tijekom prvog tjedna potrebno je davati dodatne vitamine u vodi.

Hranjenje predstavlja glavnu brigu upravljanja u proizvodnji jaja i mesa. Grupe hranjivih tvari su proteini, ugljikohidrati, masti, minerali i vitamini.

Svjetlost je neophodna za visoku proizvodnju jaja. Za optimalnu proizvodnju potrebno je 14 do 16 sati svjetla uključujući dnevnu svjetlost.

Ptice imaju debelo perje i nemaju žlijezde znojnice. Ptice mogu podnijeti hladnoću, ali su osjetljivije na toplinu.

Pokušajte održavati temperaturu iznad 15,5° C. Stoga treba održavati odgovarajuću temperaturu.

Neke pasmine pilića navedene su u nastavku.

Desi (autohtone pasmine) američke pasmine engleske pasmine
1. Aseel Plymouth Rock Australorp
2. Chittagong ili malajski Wyandotte Cornish
3. Ghagus Rhode Island crveno Dorking
4. Busra Jersy crni div Orpington
5. tenis New Hampshire Sussex
6. Goli vrat Crvena kapa
7. Lolab
8. Karaknath azijski (osim indijskog) Mediteran
9. Titri Pasmine Pasmine
10. Tellicherry Brahma Šešir od slame
11. Danki Cochin Minorka
12. Kalahasti Langshan Ancona
13. Gallus andaluzijski (plavi)

Bolesti peradi i njihova kontrola:

Sljedeće su neke od važnih bolesti peradi (i) Virusne bolesti: Ranikhetova bolest (bolest New Castlea), kozice peradi, infektivni bronhitis, Marckova bolest, kronične respiratorne bolesti, enteritis virusa patke, hepatitis, ptičja gripa. (ii) Bakterijske bolesti: pilića kolera, koriza, tifus, paratifus, Pollorum bolest, salmoneloza, (iii) Protozoalne bolesti: kokcidioza, spirohetoza (krpelja). (iv) Gljivične bolesti: Aspergiloza (pneumonija ploda), mikoza, aflatoksikoza— je također gljivična bolest peradi koja smanjuje imunitet i širi se kontaminiranom hranom. (v) Paraziti (a) Vanjski paraziti: uši, grinje, krpelji i buhe (b) Unutarnji paraziti: okrugle gliste, trakavice, gliste, (vi) Nutritivne bolesti: avitaminoza, rahitis, peroza.

Izbijanje bolesti kao što su Ranikhet, Coryza ili ptičja kolera može dovesti do smrti velikog broja ptica. Međutim, ove i druge bolesti sada se mogu kontrolirati preventivnim mjerama kao što su dobro upravljanje, pravilna prehrana i pravodobno cijepljenje tek rođenih pilića. Primjena sulfa lijekova i liječenje antibioticima širokog spektra također pomaže u liječenju nekoliko bolesti.

Također je potrebno izbjegavati prenatrpanost ptica, lošu ventilaciju i vlagu u peradarnicima jer oni pogoduju širenju bolesti. Preporuča se odmah odvajanje zaraženih ptica od zdravih i traženje veterinarske pomoći radi provjere širenja bolesti i izlječenja.

Kako spriječiti širenje 'virusa ptičje gripe'?

Ptičju gripu uzrokuje virus H5N1. Sve bolesne ptice za koje se sumnja na bolest moraju se odvojiti od zdravih ptica. Mora postojati odgovarajuće zbrinjavanje uginulih ptica i izmeta. Kuće treba dezinficirati. Treba se pridržavati općeg postupka kontrole zaraznih bolesti. Mora se izvršiti potpuno uklanjanje zaraženog jata iz prostora farme i može se uvesti novo jato. Uginule ptice koje uginu od bolesti spaliti ili zakopati. Obeshrabriti posjetitelje peradarnika. Mogu unijeti infekciju.

Prednosti uzgoja peradi:

Uzgoj peradi ima sljedeće prednosti.

Pruža jaja i meso koji su vrlo hranjive namirnice. Bogat su izvor životinjskih proteina, minerala, prave vrste masti i vitamina (A, B i D) za dobro zdravlje. Neoplođena jajašca nazivaju se "vegetarijanska jaja".

Prodajom jaja i mesa ovih ptica poljoprivrednici postaju ekonomski bolji. Peradarstvo omogućuje zapošljavanje velikom broju ljudi.

Izmet ptica tvori bogat stajski gnoj koji povećava plodnost tla. Povećava prinose usjeva.

Perje ptica je korisno.

Ptice peradi također su sredstvo za rekreaciju. Pilići u boji daju užitak izgledu. Borbe pijetlova su popularne kod nekih ljudi.


Svjetlosno onečišćenje ubija ptice u okolišu

Morska ptica kruži oko njega, uz buku
krila i vjetrova i samotnih krikova,
Zaslijepljen i izluđen svjetlom u sebi,
Udara se o blještavilo i umire.

Ekstrakt iz Svjetionik u Primorje i Vatra (1850)
od Henryja Wadswortha Longfellowa

Ptice

Mnoge vrste ptica, osobito mali insekti, migriraju noću. Ptice selice i noćne ptice koristit će svjetlost Mjeseca i zvijezda i Sunca na zalasku za navigaciju tijekom svojih dvogodišnjih migracija. Svjetlosno onečišćenje skriva njihova navigacijska pomagala. Umjetna, gradska svjetla posebno ometaju ovo instinktivno ponašanje. Privlači ptice koje noćne sele prema jarko osvijetljenim zgradama u urbanim područjima. Program Fatal Light Awareness Program izvještava da su istraživači koristili radarske slike kako bi utvrdili kako ptice reagiraju na osvijetljeno okruženje. Primijetili su da će se ptice, nakon što prolete kroz osvijetljeno okruženje, vratiti tom osvijetljenom izvoru, a zatim oklijevati da ga napuste i pritom postaju zarobljene u gradovima koji im nude malo hrane. Ptice se tada često zabijaju u sjajno osvijetljene tornjeve ili zgrade ili kruže oko njih dok ne padnu od iscrpljenosti. Konačno, kad jednom stignu na tlo, zapanjene ili ozlijeđene ptice postaju ranjive na grabežljivce. Slike koje su prikupili su zapanjujuće i jezive.

Grad Toronto već godinama promovira vlastitu kampanju za zaštitu ptica selica pod nazivom "Lights Out Toronto!" Evo primjera jednog od njihovih informativnih plakata:

Stotine mrtvih ptica pronađenih ispred srednje škole

Kad su učitelji i učenici stigli u srednju školu Tucker County, pronašli su stotine mrtvih ptica razbacanih po parkiralištu i školskom imanju.

Pomoćnik ravnatelja Mickel Bonnett naišao je na ptice koje su se rojile oko škole i letjele u prozore kada je u ponedjeljak oko 6:30 ujutro došao na posao. "Oni su se rojili oko osvijetljenog ulaza pokušavajući ući u školu", prisjetio se Bonnett. "Mislio sam da je to neobično, a onda sam vidio mrtve ptice. Vidio sam još ptica kako lete uokolo i udaraju u staklo i odlučio sam pozvati nadzornika." Bonnett je rekao da misli da ptice privlače svjetla u školi jer je vani bio mrak. Jedan za jednim, nastavili su udarati u stranu škole, strmoglavivši se u smrt.

"Svugdje gdje je svijetlilo, oni su svojim tijelima letjeli u staklo", rekao je Bonnett. "Bila je to trenutna smrt. Slomili su vratove i ležali su u hrpama kraj vrata. Neki su bili vani pored staze, prilaza, raštrkani posvuda. Pretpostavljam da neki od njih nisu toliko udarili, slomili su lubanje i umro na drugom mjestu." Dužnosnici su zatvorili školu u ponedjeljak ujutro zbog straha da bi otrovi mogli ubiti ptice. Nekoliko stvorenja ostalo je zapanjeno i oporavljeno.

Glasnogovornik Odjela za prirodne resurse Zapadne Virginije Hoy Murphy rekao je da su službenici za divlje životinje na mjestu događaja pronašli ptice nagomilane uz jedan zid ispod prozora, na krovu i razbacane po školskom dvorištu.

DNR smatra da su ptice, koje su uglavnom bile žute peharice, na zimu migrirale iz Sjeverne Amerike u Južnu Ameriku. Teoretizirali su da su se ptice dezorijentirale od magle i rasvjete oko škole te su nastavile letjeti u građevine. "Ptice pjevice selice migriraju noću i koriste zvijezde za navigaciju", rekao je Murphy. "Ako su zvijezde zaklonjene oblacima ili maglom, one će se orijentirati prema gotovo svakom povišenom izvoru svjetlosti kako bi pokušale navigirati." Gusta magla je prekrivala područje rano u ponedjeljak, a vjerojatno je da je osvjetljenje iz škole izmamilo ptice unutra, rekao je. Škola, koja se nalazi u Hambletonu, nalazi se na brdu i ostaje osvijetljena noću.

"Ova vrsta pokušaja obično dovodi do smrtnosti dok ptice kruže oko izvora svjetlosti, iscrpljuju se i sudaraju se s objektima ili su prizemljene zbog iscrpljenosti - vjerojatno se to dogodilo ovdje", rekao je Murphy. "Ista stvar se dogodila prije nekoliko godina kada je tijekom jesenske migracije jedne maglovite noći u (obližnjem) vjetroelektranu Fairfax Stone ostalo upaljeno vrlo jako svjetlo."

Ostale vrste ptica također su uključivale drozdove, oko 10 vrsta pehara, žutokljunu kukavicu, pticu mačke i vrapce, rekao je ornitolog DNR Rob Tallman, koji je bio na mjestu događaja. Tallman je rekao da ova vrsta problema i nije toliko neobična u jesenskoj sezoni. Rekao je da su se slični incidenti dogodili oko tornjeva za mobitele, Snowshoe Mountain Resorta i drugih objekata. "Pokušavamo ispraviti situaciju tako što ćemo kratkotrajno isključiti svjetla i pružiti im druge opcije osvjetljenja koje nisu toliko privlačne pticama."

Susjedne vjetrenjače, za koje se vjeruje da predstavljaju prijetnju šišmišima i pticama, ne smatraju se uzrokom smrti, rekli su dužnosnici. Vjetrenjače se nalaze oko kilometar od škole. Tallman je rekao da su dužnosnici u ponedjeljak posjetili obližnju vjetrenjaču i pronašli samo nekoliko mrtvih ptica koje su tamo bile nekoliko dana.

Zbog mjera opreza, stručnjak za bolesti divljih životinja DNR-a Jim Crum zatražio je analizu uzoraka na ptičju gripu. No, dužnosnici su rekli da su 100 posto sigurni da to nije uzrok virusa.

Havajske ptice brkaju svjetla petka navečer s Mjesecom

Izvor: Associated Press - pet, 22. listopada 2010. 19:14 ET

KAPAA, Havaji - Godišnje pojavljivanje mliječnih ptica Newellovih strižnjaka poremećena je svjetlima nogometnih stadiona lokalnih srednjih škola u okrugu Kauai. Mlade ptice zamjenjuju jaka svjetla na sportskim terenima, hotelima, parkiralištima i drugim mjestima za Mjesec i zvijezde, što ih dovodi do toga da više puta lete u krug.

Postaju iscrpljeni i na kraju padaju na tlo, gdje ih često napadaju mačke ili ih udare automobili osim ako ih ne spasu volonteri. Vrstu ugrožavaju i svinje i koze koje gaze svoja gnijezda. Mladunci polijeću između 15. rujna i 15. prosinca svake godine, što se događa usred nogometne sezone.

Populacija strižnjaka Newella, koja je sredinom 1990-ih brojala oko 80.000, pala je za 75 posto posljednjih godina kako je Kauai rastao i dodao više svjetala koja zbunjuju ptice. Ministarstvo pravosuđa SAD-a je 2005. godine reklo da su savezni dužnosnici za divlje životinje obavijestili okrug da njegova rasvjeta šteti pticama, što je u suprotnosti sa Zakonom o ugroženim vrstama i Zakonom o ugovoru o pticama selicama. Vlada je priopćila kako županija nije instalirala zaštićena svjetla koja svijetle dolje na terenu, a ne vani, čime su manje štetna za ptice.

Dakle, ove sezone, umjesto da se suoči s mogućim saveznim kaznenim progonom zbog propusta u zaštiti morskih ptica, Međuškolska federacija Kauaija promijenila je nogometni raspored tako da bi se utakmice u petak navečer umjesto toga održavale subotom poslijepodne. Za one dane najbliže punom Mjesecu, škole dopuštaju kasnije igre jer je manje vjerojatno da će ptice biti zbunjene umjetnim svjetlom.

Zbog promjena u rasporedu posjećenost utakmica pala je za 14,5%. Navijači ne vole sjediti na vrelom havajskom suncu, a igrači se žale na veliku dnevnu vrućinu. Igračima se savjetuje da budu posebno oprezni protiv toplinskog udara tako da piju više vode.

Županija je u konačnici postigla dogovor s tužiteljima prema kojem će dužnosnici do sljedeće sezone postaviti zaštićena svjetla na tri nogometna igrališta Kauaija. Sve noćne utakmice sljedeće godine morat će se igrati pod posebno dizajniranim zaštićenim svjetlima, a županija mora imati escrow račun za pokrivanje kazni za sve golubove oborene tijekom igara. (Imajte na umu da bi štit trebao omogućiti školama da koriste manje električne energije jer će više svjetla biti usmjereno prema dolje na polja na kojima se koristi.)

Međutim, umjesto da pronađu načine kako riješiti problem i ne povrijediti ovu vrstu na našem planetu, neki od oko 2% lokalnog stanovništva koje prisustvuje igrama ljuti se na ptice. Majice su napravljene da izjasne da preferiraju noćne igre, a ne da se brinu da ova vrsta prijeti da će trajno izumrijeti. I postoje izvješća da su stanovnici otoka upozorili da neki ljudi govore o odbijanju spašavanja ptica koje vide na zemlji samo kako bi protestirali protiv subotnjih igara.

Kako guske znaju kada treba letjeti na sunce?
Tko im govori o godišnjim dobima?
Kako mi, ljudi, znamo kada je vrijeme da krenemo dalje?
Kao i kod ptica selica, tako zasigurno i kod nas, postoji glas u nama kad bismo ga samo poslušali, koji nam zasigurno govori kada da krenemo u nepoznato.

- Elisabeth Kubler-Ross (švicarsko-američka psihijatrica i autorica)

Umjetna noćna rasvjeta utječe na pjesmu zore, uspjeh u liječenju ekstra parova i spoj u pticama pjevicama

Bart Kempenaers 1,* , Pernilla Borgstr m 1,2 , Peter Lo s 1 , Emmi Schlicht 1 , Mihai Valcu 1
1 Odjel za bihevioralnu ekologiju i evolucijsku genetiku, Institut Max Planck za ornitologiju, Eberhard-Gwinner-Strasse, 82319 Seewiesen, Njemačka
2 Sadašnja adresa: Odjel za ekologiju životinja, Sveučilište u Lundu, Ekološka zgrada, S lvegatan 37, 22362 Lund, Švedska

Neki učinci svjetlosnog onečišćenja mogu biti razorni jer mogu izravno utjecati na vrstu, kao što je smrtonosna privlačnost moljaca prema svjetlosti ili način na koji osvijetljeni tornjevi također mogu privući, zbuniti i ubiti ptice. Međutim, drugi učinci su suptilniji jer ometaju prirodne vremenske obrasce o kojima vrsta ovisi. Takvi slučajevi zahtijevaju dodatna istraživanja kako bi se razumjelo kako to utječe na vrstu, što je i poanta ove studije.

"U usporedbi s kemijskim i bučnim onečišćenjem, svjetlosno je onečišćenje suptilnije, a njegovi učinci možda nisu dobili pozornost koju zaslužuju", rekao je Bart Kempenaers s Instituta Max Planck za ornitologiju u Njemačkoj. "Naši nalazi jasno pokazuju da svjetlosno onečišćenje utječe na vrijeme razmnožavanja, s nepoznatim posljedicama za populacije ptica." Upravo te dugoročne nepoznate posljedice treba razumjeti.

U ovoj studiji znanstvenici su usporedili razlike u ponašanju ptica duboko u šumskim područjima s onima koje žive u blizini rubova koji su bili uz ceste, sa ili bez ulične rasvjete.

Prvo o čemu su pisali je utjecaj koji je umjetno noćno osvjetljenje imalo na zornicu pet običnih šumskih ptica pjevica, odnosno zebljika (Fringilla coelebs), Plava Sisa (Cyanistes caeruleus), velika sjenica (Parus major), kos (Turdus merula), Robin (Erithacus rubecula). Pjesma za zoru je ona prva pjesma koju mužjaci pjevaju u zoru ili prije zore, a za ženke ove vrste, rano vrijeme pjesme često je mjera kvalitete mužjaka, što znači da su stariji mužjaci za razliku od jednogodišnjaka.

Pjesme muškaraca snimili su pomoću softverskog paketa pod nazivom Audacity. Početak vremena zvučne datoteke uspoređen je s vremenom izlaska sunca. Istraživači su otkrili da su se pjesme svake vrste lako razlikovale od pozadinske buke kako na audio, tako i na vizualnim sonogramima, s tim da su jedine poteškoće bile one tijekom kišnih jutra.

Kod četiri od tih pet vrsta mužjaci u blizini uličnih svjetala počeli su pjevati znatno ranije ujutro nego ti mužjaci u drugim dijelovima šume. Primjerice, tijekom 19 dana koliko je studija trajala, crvendaći u području bez umjetnog svjetla počeli su pjevati 45 - 67 minuta prije zore, dok su oni u blizini ulične rasvjete počeli pjevati 105 - 145 minuta prije zore. Ove ranije pjesme zore krivotvore mužjake oglašene "kvalitete" i mogu pomoći tim mužjacima niže kvalitete pasmine. Što to dugoročno čini vrsti kao cjelini, potrebno je pogledati. Dok je prijašnja studija sugerirala da su crvendaći više pod utjecajem dnevne buke, a ne razine osvjetljenja, autori ističu da su u njihovoj studiji razine buke bile vrlo niske i da su mužjaci počeli pjevati prije zore i mnogo prije nego što većina bučnih ljudi počne biti aktivna za dan.

Autori su također napisali da su u razdoblju od sedam godina plave sise pokazale stvarnu promjenu u svojoj reprodukciji kada su uspoređivale ponašanje u blizini ulične rasvjete s onima bez svjetala. Promjena je bila u tome što su u prosjeku ženke u blizini svjetla polagale jaja 1,5 dana ranije od onih u mraku, što može dovesti do neusklađenosti između vremena najveće potražnje za hranom od strane njihovih mladunaca i vremena najveće količine hrane koja je dostupna.

Za osvijetljene mužjake plavih sisa imali su više uspjeha u parovima sa ženkama. Iako to može zvučati dobro za ove muškarce, autori upozoravaju da bi mogli manje spavati i biti izloženi većem riziku od grabežljivaca. Autori navode da bi takve čimbenike bilo teško kvantificirati.


Klasifikacija/taksonomija

Evo taksonomije vrana, prema Integriranom taksonomskom informacijskom sustavu (ITIS):

Kraljevstvo: Životinja Potkraljevstvo: Bilateria Infrakingdom: Deuterostomija Red: Chordata Podtip: kralježnjaci Infraphylum: Gnathostomata Razred: Aves Superklasa: Tetrapoda Narudžba: Passeriformes Obitelj: Corvidae Rod: Corvus Vrsta: Ima ih više od 30, uključujući:

  • Corvus brachyrhynchos (američka vrana)
  • Corvus caurinus (sjeverozapadna vrana)
  • Corvus corax (obični gavran)
  • Corvus corone (golovrana vrana)
  • Corvus coronoides (australski gavran)
  • Corvus cryptoleucus (čivava gavran)
  • Corvus florensis (Flores vrana)
  • Corvus frugilegus (vrana)
  • Corvus hawaiiensis ('Alala, havajska vrana)
  • Corvus imparatus (meksička vrana)
  • Corvus mellori (mali gavran)
  • Corvus ossifragus (riba vrana)

Za ptice je preživljavanje u oluji prirodno

Nakon uragana Sandy i zlobnog sjeveroistoka, veći dio istočne obale izgledao je tako izlupano i poplavljeno, toliko posuto srušenim drvećem i ogoljeno dinama i plažama, da su se mnogi promatrači bojali najgoreg. Zasigurno bi se svakoga dana počeli pojavljivati ​​leševi divljih životinja - posebno ptica, jer tko će vjerojatnije platiti kada nebo postane nevaljalo od onih koji se ponašaju kao da ga posjeduju?

Yet biologists studying the hurricane’s aftermath say there is remarkably little evidence that birds, or any other countable, charismatic fauna for that matter, have suffered the sort of mass casualties seen in environmental disasters like the BP oil spill of 2010, when thousands of oil-slicked seabirds washed ashore, unable to fly, feed or stay warm.

“With an oil spill, the mortality is way more direct and evident,” said Andrew Farnsworth, a scientist at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. “And though it’s possible that thousands of birds were slammed into the ocean by this storm and we’ll never know about it, my gut tells me that didn’t happen.”

To the contrary, scientists said, powerful new satellite tracking studies of birds on the wing — including one that coincided with the height of Hurricane Sandy’s fury — reveal birds as the supreme masters of extreme weather management, able to skirt deftly around gale-force winds, correct course after being blown horribly astray, or even use a hurricane as a kind of slingshot to propel themselves forward at hyperspeed.

“We must remind ourselves that 40 to 50 percent of birds are migratory, often traveling thousands of miles a year between their summer and winter grounds,” said Gary Langham, chief scientist of the National Audubon Society in Washington. “The only way they can accomplish that is to have amazing abilities that are far beyond anything we can do.”

Humans may complain about climate change. Birds do something about it. “Migration, in its most basic sense, is a response to a changing climate,” Dr. Farnsworth said. “It’s finding some way to deal with a changing regime of temperature and food availability.” For birds, cyclones, squalls and other meteorological wild cards have always been a part of the itinerant’s package, and they have evolved stable strategies for dealing with instability.

Given the likelihood that extreme weather events will only become more common as the planet heats up, Dr. Farnsworth said, “the fact that birds can respond to severe storms is to some extent a good sign.” Nevertheless, he added, “how many times they can do it, and how severe is too severe, are open questions.”

Among a bird’s weather management skills is the power to detect the air pressure changes that signal a coming storm, and with enough advance notice to prepare for adversity. Scientists are not certain how this avian barometer works, yet the evidence of its existence is clear.

As just one example, Dr. Langham cited the behavior of the birds in his backyard in Washington on the days before Hurricane Sandy arrived. “They were going crazy, eating food in a driving rain and wind when normally they would never have been out in that kind of weather,” he said. “They knew a bigger storm was coming, and they were trying to get food while they could.”

Songbirds and their so-called passerine kin may be notorious lightweights — if a sparrow were a letter, it could travel on a single stamp — but that doesn’t mean they’re as helpless as loose feathers in the wind. Passerine means perching, and the members of this broad taxonomic fraternity all take their perching seriously.

When a storm hits, a passerine bird can alight on the nearest available branch or wire with talons that will reflexively close upon contact and remain closed by default, without added expenditure of energy, until the bird chooses to open them again. If you’ve ever watched a perched bird in a high wind and worried, “Poor squinting thing — could it be blown away and smashed to bits down the road?,” the answer is not unless the perch is blown away with it.

Scientists have found that many migratory birds, especially the passerines, seek to hug the coast and its potential perches as long as possible, leaving the jump over open water to the last possible moment. But for birds over the open ocean, hurricanes pose a real challenge, and they can be blown off course by hundreds of miles. In fact, ornithologists and serious bird-watchers admit they look forward to big storms that might blow their way exotic species they’d otherwise never see in their lifetime.

Hurricane Sandy did not disappoint them. As an enormous hybrid of winter and tropical storm fronts with a huge reach, it pulled in a far more diverse group of birds than the average hurricane, and Web sites like ebird.org and birdcast.info were alive with thrilled reports of exceptional sightings — of the European shorebird called the northern lapwing showing up in Massachusetts of Eastern wood-pewees that should have been in Central and South America suddenly appearing again in New York and Ontario of trindade petrels, which normally spend their entire lives over the open ocean off Brazil, popping up in western Pennsylvania and of flocks of Leach’s storm-petrels and pomarine jaegers, arctic relatives of gulls, making unheard-of tours far inland and through Manhattan.

(At least a couple of these visitors fell prey to New York City’s resident peregrine falcons, which either mistook the seabirds for pigeons or were in the mood to try a new ethnic cuisine.)

Most of the visitors didn’t linger, and once the storm had passed they took off, presumably heading back to where they wanted to be. “Birds have tremendous situational awareness,” said Bryan D. Watts, director of the Center for Conservation Biology at the College of William and Mary in Virginia. “They know where they are and where they’re going, they’re able to fly back repeatedly, and they’ve shown an amazing ability to compensate for being pushed off track.”

Researchers have begun tagging individual birds with GPS devices and tracking them by satellite to gain detailed insights into how birds accomplish their migratory marathons and what exactly they do when confronting a storm.

In preparation for a possible offshore wind development project, Caleb Spiegel, a wildlife biologist with the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, and his colleagues at the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management have attached transmitters to the tail feathers of several types of migratory birds, including the northern gannet, a big waterfowl with a spectacular fishing style of falling straight down from the sky like a missile dropped from a plane.

As it happened, one of the gannets was approaching the southern shore of New Jersey at just the moment Hurricane Sandy made landfall there, and Mr. Spiegel could catch the bird’s honker of a reaction. Making a sharp U-turn, it headed back north toward Long Island and then cut out to sea along the continental shelf, where it waited out the storm while refueling with a few divebombs for fish.

“The bird has since returned to New Jersey,” Mr. Spiegel said. “It’s pretty much back where it started.”

In a renowned tracking study that began in 2008, Dr. Watts and his colleagues have followed the peregrinations of whimbrels, speckled brown shorebirds with long curved beaks that breed in the subarctic Hudson Bay and winter as far south as Brazil. Because whimbrels regularly pass through the “hurricane alley” of the Caribbean and other meteorological hot spots, Dr. Watts said, “we’ve tracked many birds into major storms.”

In August 2011, the researchers marveled at the derring-do of a whimbrel named Hope as it encountered Tropical Storm Gert off the coast of Nova Scotia, diving straight into the tempest at 7 miles per hour and emerging from the other side at a pace of 90 m.p.h. Not long after, the scientists cheered as four other whimbrels successfully navigated their way through Hurricane Irene.

The joy was short-lived. In September 2011, two of the four Irene survivors sought refuge from another storm by landing on the island of Guadeloupe, where they were shot by sport hunters. Dr. Watts has since discovered to his dismay that throughout the Caribbean islands, hurricane season is considered hunting season, as enthusiasts target the many migratory birds grounded by bad weather.

“There are 3,000 permanent hunters on Guadeloupe alone,” he said. “The annual take in the West Indies may be 200,000 birds.”


Explore More Science:

Below are other science projects associated with this project.

Seabird Die-offs in Alaska

Beginning in 2015, large numbers of dead seabirds have been appearing on beaches in most marine areas of Alaska. Although seabird die-offs are known to occur sporadically (e.g. 1970, 1989, 1993, 1997/1998, and 2004) in Alaska, these recent die-offs have been distinguished from past events by their increased frequency, duration, geographic extent, and number of different species involved.

Cook Inlet Seabird and Forage Fish Study

A massive die-off of Common Murres was documented in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) during the fall and winter of 2015-2016 in association with a record-breaking marine heat wave in the GOA.

North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database

The North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD) includes more than 460,000 survey transects that were designed and conducted by numerous partners primarily to census seabirds at sea.

Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins in Alaska Seabirds

Elevated ocean temperatures are linked to the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Toxins from these blooms may pose health threats to marine organisms, including seabirds. Since 2015, the USGS has worked with a variety of stakeholders to develop testing methods and research projects to better understand the geographic extent, timing and impacts of algal toxins in Alaska marine.

Detecting Long-term Changes in Forage Fish Populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska

Forage fish are small pelagic schooling fish that play a key role in transferring energy between plankton and top marine predators. Many seabirds, marine mammals, and commercial fish species depend on forage fish to grow and survive.

Terrestrial Influence on Glacial-Marine Food Webs

Where glaciers meet the sea in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), they create unique and productive marine habitats. Ringed by the continent’s tallest coastal mountains, 20% of the GOA coastal watershed is covered by glacial ice and the annual freshwater discharge into the GOA from glacial melt is comparable to that of the Mississippi river.

USGS Research Vessel Alaskan Gyre

The R/V Alaskan Gyre is a 50-foot fiberglass seiner that has been converted into a versatile research vessel to provide USGS scientists and collaborators with access to remote marine areas of Alaska and serve as a mobile laboratory. The vessel was built by Ledford Marine of Marysville, Washington in 1989 and is named after the Alaskan Gyre, a series of wind driven currents that.

USGS and FWS Collaborate on 2019 Short-tailed Shearwater die-off event in Bristol Bay, Alaska. "FWS 2019 Alaska Seabird Die-off Fact Sheet "

In response to recent seabird die-off events in Alaska, the Alaska Science Center tested bird tissues for toxins associated with harmful algal blooms. See preliminary findings in handout "Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins in Alaska Seabirds, September 2018".

Ecosystem response persists after a prolonged marine heatwave

Some of the longest and most comprehensive marine ecosystem monitoring programs were established in the Gulf of Alaska following the environmental disaster of the Exxon Valdez oil spill over 30 years ago. These monitoring programs have been successful in assessing recovery from oil spill impacts, and their continuation decades later.

Suryan, Robert M. Arimitsu, Mayumi L. Coletti, Heather A. Hopcroft, Russell R. Lindeberg, Mandy Barbeaux, Steven J. Batten, Sonia Burt, William J. Bishop, Mary Anne Bodkin, James L. Brenner, R. Campbell, Robert W. Cushing, Daniel A. Danielson, Seth L. Dorn, Martin W. Drummond, Brie Esler, Daniel N. Gelatt, Thomas S. Hanselman, Dana H. Iken, Katrin Irons, David B. Hatch, Scott A. Haught, Stormy Holderied, Kris Kimmel, David G. Konar, Brenda H. Kuletz, Kathy J. Kettle, Arthur B. Laurel, Benjamin J. Maniscalco, John M. Monson, Daniel Matkin, Craig O. McKinstry, Caitlin Moran, John Olsen, D. Piatt, John F. Palsson, Wayne A. Pegau, W. Scott Rogers, Lauren A. Rojek, Nora A. Schaefer, Anne Spies, Ingrid B. Straley, J.M. Strom, Suzanne L. Szymkowiak, Marysia Weitzman, Ben P. Sweeney, Kathryn L. Yasumiishi, Ellen M. Zador, Stephanie

Heatwave-induced synchrony within forage fish portfolio disrupts energy flow to top pelagic predators

During the Pacific marine heatwave of 2014–2016, abundance and quality of several key forage fish species in the Gulf of Alaska were simultaneously reduced throughout the system. Capelin (Mallotus catervarius), sand lance (Ammodytes personatus), and herring (Clupea pallasii) populations were at historically low levels, and within this community.

Arimitsu, Mayumi L. Piatt, John F. Hatch, Scott Suryan, Robert M. Batten, Sonia Bishop, Mary Anne Campbell, Rob W. Coletti, Heather Cushing, Dan Gorman, Kristen Hopcroft, Russell R. Kuletz, Kathy J. Marsteller, Caitlin Elizabeth McKinstry, Caitlin McGowan, David Moran, John Pegau, W. Scott Schaefer, Anne Schoen, Sarah K. Straley, Jan von Biela, Vanessa R.

Forecasting community reassembly using climate-linked spatio-temporal ecosystem models

Ecosystems are increasingly impacted by human activities, altering linkages among physical and biological components. Spatial community reassembly occurs when these human impacts modify the spatial overlap between system components, and there is need for practical tools to forecast spatial community reassembly at landscape scales using monitoring.

Thorson, James Arimitsu, Mayumi L. Barnett, Lewis Cheng, Wei Eisner, Lisa Haynie, Alan Hermann, Albert Holsman, Kirsten Kimmel, David Lomas, Michael Richar, Jon Siddon, Elizabeth

Seabird‐induced natural mortality of forage fish varies with fish abundance: Evidence from five ecosystems

Forage fish populations often undergo large and rapid fluctuations in abundance. However, most of their predators are buffered against such fluctuations owing to their slower pace of life, which allows them to maintain more stable populations, at least during short periods of food scarcity. In this study, we investigated top‐down processes exerted.

Saraux, Claire Sydeman, William J. Piatt, John F. Anker-Nilssen, Tycho Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas Bertrand, Sophie Cury, Philippe M. Furness, Robert W. Miller, James A. Österblom, Henrik Passuni, Giannina Roux, Jean-Paul Shannon, Lynne Crawford, Robert J.M.

Can oceanic prey effects on growth and time to fledging mediate terrestrial predator limitation of an at‐risk seabird?

Most seabird species nest colonially on cliffs or islands with limited terrestrial predation, so that oceanic effects on the quality or quantity of prey fed to chicks more often determine nest success. However, when predator access increases, impacts can be dramatic, especially when exposure to predators is extended due to slow growth from.

Knudson, Timothy Lovvorn, James R. Lawonn, M. James Corcoran, Robin Roby, Dan Piatt, John F. Pyle, William

Extreme mortality and reproductive failure of common murres resulting from the northeast Pacific marine heatwave of 2014-2016

About 62,000 dead or dying common murres (Uria aalge), the trophically dominant fish-eating seabird of the North Pacific, washed ashore between summer 2015 and spring 2016 on beaches from California to Alaska. Most birds were severely emaciated and, so far, no evidence for anything other than starvation was found to explain this mass mortality.

Piatt, John F. Parrish, Julia K. Renner, Heather M. Schoen, Sarah K. Jones, Timothy Arimitsu, Mayumi L. Kuletz, Kathy J. Bodenstein, Barbara Garcia-Reyes, Marisol Duerr, Rebecca Corcoran, Robin Kaler, Robb S.A. McChesney, Gerard J. Golightly, Richard T. Coletti, Heather A. Suryan, Robert M. Burgess, Hillary K. Lindsey, Jackie Lindquist, Kirsten Warzybok, Peter Jahncke, Jaime Roletto, Jan Sydeman, William J.

Spatial and temporal dynamics of Pacific capelin Mallotus catervarius in the Gulf of Alaska: Implications for ecosystem-based fisheries management

Pacific capelin Mallotus catervarius are planktivorous, small pelagic fish that serve an intermediate trophic role in marine food webs. Due to the lack of a directed fishery or monitoring of capelin in the Northeast Pacific, there is limited information on their distribution and abundance, and how spatio-temporal fluctuations in capelin.

David W. McGowan Esther Goldstein Arimitsu, Mayumi L. Alison Dreary Olav Ormseth Alex DeRobertis John Horne Lauren Rogers Matt Wilson Kenneth Coyle Holderied, Kris Piatt, John F. Stockhausen, W.T. Stephani Zador

Algal toxins in Alaskan seabirds: Evaluating the role of saxitoxin and domoic acid in a large-scale die-off of Common Murres

Elevated seawater temperatures are linked to the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs), which pose a growing threat to marine birds and other wildlife. During late 2015 and early 2016, a massive die-off of Common Murres (Uria algae hereafter, murres) was observed in the Gulf of Alaska coincident with a strong marine heat wave. Previous.

Van Hemert, Caroline R. Schoen, Sarah K. Litaker, R. Wayne Smith, Matthew M. Arimitsu, Mayumi L. Piatt, John F. Holland, William C. Hardison, Ransom Pearce, John M.

Effects of ocean climate on the length and condition of forage fish in the Gulf of Alaska

Climatic drivers of the size and body condition of forage fish in the North Pacific are poorly known. We hypothesized that length and condition of forage fish in the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) should vary in relation to ocean temperature on multiple scales. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed morphometric data for capelin (Mallotus catervarius) and.

Sarah Ann Thompson Marisol Garcia-Reyes William Sydeman Arimitsu, Mayumi L. Scott Hatch Piatt, John F.

Extreme reduction in nutritional value of a key forage fish during the Pacific marine heatwave of 2014–2016

Pacific sand lance Ammodytes personatus are a key forage fish in the North Pacific for many species of salmon, groundfish, seabirds, and marine mammals and have historically been important to predators in relatively warm years. However, extreme declines in the nutritional value of sand lance in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, during.

von Biela, Vanessa R. Arimitsu, Mayumi L. Piatt, John F. Heflin, Brielle Schoen, Sarah K. Trowbridge, Jannelle Clawson, Chelsea

Biogeography of pelagic food webs in the North Pacific

The tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) is a generalist seabird that breeds throughout the North Pacific and eats more than 75 different prey species. Using puffins as samplers, we characterized the geographic variability in pelagic food webs across the subarctic North Pacific from the composition of

10,000 tufted puffin meals (

Piatt, John F. Arimitsu, Mayumi L. Sydeman, William J. Thompson, Sarah Ann Renner, Heather Zador, Stephani Douglas, David C. Hatch, Scott A. Kettle, Arthur B. Williams, Jeffrey C.

Tracing biogeochemical subsidies from glacier runoff into Alaska's coastal marine food webs

Nearly half of the freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska originates from landscapes draining glacier runoff, but the influence of the influx of riverine organic matter on the trophodynamics of coastal marine food webs is not well understood. We quantified the ecological impact of riverine organic matter subsidies to glacier-marine habitats.

Arimitsu, Mayumi L. Hobson, Keith A. Webber, D'Arcy N. Piatt, John F. Hood, Eran W. Fellman, Jason B.


UC Berkeley Study Says Migratory Birds Use Infrasound to Avoid Storms

Shorebirds migrate from their northern breeding grounds to San Francisco Bay during the winter to feed on the abundant intertidal animal species. (Ingrid Taylar/Wikimedia)

The turning of the days and the tilt of our earth&rsquos axis have brought us to winter with the solstice just days away. Literally meaning, "the sun-standing-still" as it reverses from shorter to longer days, winter solstice also finds us with an influx of birds to the Bay Area -- everything from white-crowned sparrows in the shrubs and yellow-rumped warblers in the trees to flocks of ducks and shorebirds at the Bay.

It&rsquos well-known that daylight length is an important migratory trigger, along with hormonal changes. How birds find their way to their destination, though, is an unfolding mystery. In 2000, research by Jon Hagstrum, a geophysicist at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, found that before supersonic flights were discontinued, the infrasonic noise from Concorde jets could interfere with the ability of racing pigeons to find their way home. Infrasound occurs at low frequencies, below normal human hearing, at 20 Hz (cycles per second) or lower. Natural infrasound is generated by events such as earthquakes, pounding ocean waves, volcanoes and severe storms. Hagstrum&rsquos paper was the first evidence beyond the laboratory that birds use infrasound to orient themselves.

Golden-winged warblers, focus of the UC Berkeley study, winter in Central and South America before returning to North America's Great Lakes and Appalachian Mountain regions to breed. There is growing urgency to study them as their population in the Appalachians is only 5 percent of historic levels due to habitat loss and hybridization with other species. (Courtesy of Henry Strebly)

Another study just published in Current Biology states infrasound is also a cue for evacuation migration. A research team in April 2014 led by ecologist Henry Streby at the University of California, Berkeley, was tracking a population of golden-winged warblers in the mountains of eastern Tennessee. They discovered that the birds left their breeding grounds and flew south to the Gulf of Mexico one to two days ahead of the arrival of powerful supercell storms. Their report related that when the birds made their exit, the storm was still 250-560 miles away, and local cues to inclement weather &ndash changes in atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind speed &ndash were largely absent. Infrasound seemed to be a logical explanation.

"It is the first time we've documented this type of storm avoidance behavior in birds during breeding season," said Streby. "We know that birds can alter their route to avoid things during regular migration, but it hadn't been shown until our study that they would leave once the migration is over and they'd established their breeding territory to escape severe weather," said Streby. "The warblers in our study flew at least 1,500 kilometers (932 miles) total to avoid a severe weather system. They then came right back home after the storm passed."

White-crowned sparrows spend the winter in the lower 48 States with some found year-round in the Sierra. (Ingrid Taylar/Wikimedia)

Through this kind of research, we may learn more about environmental pressures that can affect species of concern such as the golden-winged warblers, as well as better understand the animals that share our world. As the winter solstice approaches, take a little time to appreciate nature and the diversity of wildlife around us: take a walk and enjoy the outdoors and the weather. Check out some naturalist-guided programs happening this weekend in the Regional Parks. You might even want to document the solstice by noting the length of daylight on the Journey North website and check out how long the day lasts in other parts of North America on December 21.


Is feeding birds only after a snowstorm helpful or harmful? - Biologija

Seagulls, or gulls depending on how much you dislike syllables, are considered a pest to many, a minor, avoidable annoyance to many more and the harbingers of death OH GOD LOOK AT THEIR COLD DEAD EYES! to my neighbour who doesn’t get out much. Over the years, there has been a persistent and rather macabre urban myth circulating that gulls will explode if they’re fed Alka-Seltzer. Sadly, we’re here to inform you that this isn’t true.

Though the myth has many subtle variations depending on where exactly you’re reading it, it basically reads as follows. If you feed a hungry gull an Alka-Seltzer tablet or a similar product (gulls aren’t really that discerning when it comes to their choice of indigestion relief if we’re honest), upon hitting the bird’s stomach, the tablet will work its magic and cause the gull to violently explode into a cloud of feathers and intestinal confetti. Why the myth always seems to involve gulls instead of another bird is presumably due to seagulls’ propensity to eat damn near anything we humans throw them.

Some variations on the myth try to add a little science to the mix (while simultaneously demonstrating why you should never trust any answer on Yahoo Answers and the like) by insisting that birds lack the ability to pass gas, which causes the deadly and explosive build-up in the unfortunate bird’s stomach that eventually causes it to paint the side-walk with its insides.

Our guess is that this pseudo-scientific, kind-of believable explanation is why the myth continues to persist even to this day, despite a clear and apparent lack of “OMG, watch these seagulls explode” videos on YouTube. (There are a couple out there… but let’s just say the makers of the videos perhaps should have hired out for better video effects if they wanted to be more believable, rather than clearly just using things like fireworks stuffed in dead birds or the like.)

We will admit, though, the reasoning is rather convincing on the surface we personally have never heard a bird pass gas and that’s certainly not something usually covered in standard education systems.

Of course, once you spend a couple seconds thinking about it, even with just a basic knowledge of our feathered friends, you should easily be able to see the whole “Alka-Seltzer / exploding bird” thing doesn’t make sense regardless of their ability to give a cloacal salute. (Hint: How do baby birds get food?)

But don’t take our word for it, as veterinarian Mike Murray explains, just because birds don’t typically pass gas, it doesn’t mean their bodies aren’t equipped to do so if necessary if a bird ever needed to burp or fart, it could it’s just that its diet doesn’t typically require it to need to.

As for air coming out the other end from their derriere’s, to quote renowned bird-nerd and Director of Conservation and Field Research at an aviary in Pittsburgh, Todd Katzner.

The fact that birds can regurgitate food for their young suggests that they can also reverse the direction of other things down there.

And, of course, if they can pass gas on the one side and regurgitate food and gasses on the other, Alka-Seltzer simply isn’t going to hurt them.

Weirdly, this isn’t the only myth involving exploding birds, for example, there’s an oft repeated “fact” thrown around that you shouldn’t throw rice at weddings, or at all, because birds eat it, which causes it to swell up in their stomachs, killing them. In some versions, the rice causes them to violently detonate, but we presume this only happens when Michael Bay manages to get his hands on the rice first.

As with the Alka Seltzer myth, there is zero evidence to back up this claim and quite a bit of evidence to the contrary (besides just the simple fact that the birds can regurgitate, so even if it expanded too much, they could just do that if it became uncomfortable).

For instance, a 2002 study was done on this subject by biologist Jim Krupa of the University of Kentucky that was later published in a 2005 edition of the journal, Američki učitelj biologije. Krupa was inspired to do a study on birds and rice after an almost even split occurred among his 600 students when he asked them if throwing rice at weddings was harmful to birds (45% thought the rice would kill the birds).

They started by experimenting with the expansion of various grains that birds commonly ate in order to see what the birds’ systems could handle. What they found was that typical bird seed (the type that is now sometimes thrown at many weddings owing to the bird/rice myth) actually expands more than rice, at 40% expansion over rice’s 33%. However, one type of rice did show pretty remarkable expansion- instant rice. Brown instant rice expanded at 240% its original volume and white instant rice expanded at 270%.

Few people throw instant rice at weddings as it’s a lot more expensive than “regular” dried rice, but the question remained as to whether instant rice could burst birds’ bellies or other parts of their digestive system. Again, getting around the bird’s ability to regurgitate, conceptually it seems like instant rice wouldn’t be a problem given how long it takes even dried instant rice to absorb moisture at around a bird’s typical body temperature (for reference, pigeons sit around 100-110 degrees Fahrenheit or 37.7-43.3 degrees Celsius).

Given that it seemed to them safe enough to try from a conceptual standpoint, they decided to go ahead with testing instant rice out on real birds (Krupa owned 60 doves and pigeons), which he fed a diet of nothing but instant rice and water for 12 hours, as much as they wanted.

After 12 hours, the birds all lay dead at the bottom of their cages and Krupa was splashed with red paint by PETA after being fired for animal cruelty… Or… you know, the birds were all completely fine (which is what actually happened). Not only were they all not dead at the end of the day, but during the 12 hour period while they were munching on instant rice, the birds were closely monitored for any signs of distress. Not a single bird showed the slightest discomfort from eating the instant rice and, in fact, Krupa stated, “now they’re kind of addicted to it.”

How the myth that rice will cause birds’ stomachs to explode started isn’t known, but it has been around at least since the 1980s. In 1985, a state representative from Connecticut, Mae S. Schmidle, decided to do what seemingly all politicians do all the time- pass laws that are based on subjects they are woefully ignorant about while not bothering to do any real research to educate themselves on it.

Specifically, Schmidle attempted to pass a law forbidding people from being able to throw rice at weddings to “prevent injury and death of birds as a result of ingesting raw rice thrown at weddings”, called “An Act Prohibiting The Use Of Uncooked Rice At Nuptial Affairs”. The proposed penalty for breaking this law was to be a $50 fine.

The rice that’s left, that’s not in your hair or on your suit or in your bouquet, you leave for the birds. Unfortunately, when the birds eat the raw rice, they cannot digest it. When it gets in their stomachs, it expands and causes them to have violent deaths. I’ve heard from several ministers who say that the next morning after a wedding, they see all these birds toppled over because they got poisoned by the rice.

In truth, there is not a single documented instance of this ever happening.

She also went on to state that she knew at least one other state that outlawed throwing rice at weddings for this reason. When asked which state, Schmidle replied that she didn’t know. (seriously)

Several ornithologists came forward and expressed their extreme skepticism over Schmidle’s claims, such as Roland C. Clement, president of the Connecticut Ornithological Association, who stated,

It sounds crazy. I have 50 years of professional experience as a practicing ornithologist and I’ve never heard of such a thing before. Of course, there can always be a first time, but I would have to see some evidence before I would promote the idea.

As no such evidence could be produced, the bill was never passed.

The myth got further traction thanks to Ann Landers, a.k.a. Esther Lederer. Her column on May 21, 1988 stated the following:

Dear Ann Landers: I have never seen this issue raised in your column but it is something that every prospective bride and groom should think about, especially those who love birds.

I am getting married in September and I’d like to have birdseed thrown instead of rice. Hard, dry rice is harmful to birds. According to ecologists [Yes, you read that right, ecologists], it absorbs the moisture in their stomachs and kills them. How can I get this message across to my guests, without sounding like some kind of nut? [Too late] My fiancé is a bird-lover, too, and says it’s OK with him if I say this in the invitation- K.M.M., Long Island

Dear K.M.M.: A Connecticut lawyer has introduced a bill banning instant rice from weddings because it can indeed be lethal to wildlife. But to state this on the invitation would be in poor taste. Ask your bridesmaids and ushers to pass the word to as many guests as possible.

Landers later issued a retraction, citing a letter from Steve Sibley, a Cornell ornithologist who stated,

Rice is not a threat to birds. It must be boiled before it will expand. Furthermore, all the food that birds swallow is ground up by powerful muscles and grit in their gizzards.

Just shy of a decade later, Landers once again printed the same myth, presumably forgetting all about her column and retraction from 1988.

Today a good deal of people continue to believe this rice myth thanks to a cocktail of anecdotal evidence, ignorance and the fact that most churches ban people from throwing rice at weddings. In regards to the latter, the reasoning behind this has less to do with protecting birds and more to do with the fact that churches don’t want to spend hours after every wedding they hold cleaning their grounds of rice.

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